The EP&L calculates Novo Nordisk’s total environmental impact to be 223 million Euro, including both operations and indirect impacts throughout the supply chain. The main environmental impacts occur in tier 1 and tier 3 of the supply chain. Novo Nordisk’s own operations constitute only 13% of the total environmental impact.
Tier 1 and 3 are the largest contributors to the environmental costs relating to water consumption, likely driven by raw materials extraction, farming, machinery and equipment, buildings, as well as greenhouse gas emissions. Tier 1 impacts are driven by product distribution, tier 2 from processing of raw materials and tier 3 includes raw material impacts, primarily from corn production for glucose and oil extraction for plastic materials.